"the distinguishing feature of Ohno's approach was to challenge and teach front line and support staff how to design their own work, using the Training Within Industry system pioneered during WWII in the USA (4). This enabled the front line to establish a standard way of doing their work as a base line for improvement, which in turn enabled them to see and respond to any deviations from this standard immediately. In analyzing the root causes of the many issues that interrupted their work he also taught them how to use the scientific approach to solving problems, using Deming's PDCA method. ... Lean shares the same scientific approach to the analysis of work with many improvement methodologies, like BPR, Six Sigma and TQM. But it differs from them in how it is used. Rather than experts using scientific methods to design better systems, lean builds superior performance by developing the problem solving capabilities of the front line, supported by a hands-on management system."
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